torsional spring - 0°
torsional spring - 90°
torsional spring - 180°
torsional spring - 270°
Dz - external diameter. External diameter of a spring can be calculated by adding two diameters of a wire to the internal diameter of a spring.
Dp - divisional diameter. Divisional diameter can be calculated by deducting diameter of a wire from the external diameter of a wire.
Dw - internal diameter. Internal diameter of a wire can be calculated by deducting two diameters of a wire from the external diameter of a wire.
L0 - length of a spring in a free state (without ballast).
d - diameter of a wire from which spring is made. Following parameters concern only press springs: